Lecture notes on ecg

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Lecture notes on ecg

Not a member? Free Access to new videos every week. Master Medical Sciences with crystal clear concepts. Graphical representation of the electrical activity of the heart is called electrocardiography. Resting membrane potential RMP is the electrical voltage difference between inside and outside of the membrane. When the myocardial cell is not stimulated, it is in state of resting membrane potential RMP. Normally, resting ventricular myocardial cells are electrically negative inside. For example; RMP of ventricular myocardial cell is mV, it means that in the resting condition, the myocardial cell internally has negative polarized membrane.

As soon as myocardial cell is stimulated, some cations will move into to the cells, this positive charged ions moving into the cells will take RMP towards less negative state, because cations will neutralize the electronegativity. Thresh hold potential THP is a potential at which voltage gated Na-channels in membrane suddenly open, while in RMP that voltage gated Na-channels were closed.

After stimulation to the cell, voltage starts moving towards Thresh hold potential THP that is mV in ventricular myocardial cell. As soon as it touches THP, voltage gated Na-channel opens and lots of Na comes in and progressively neutralize the electronegativity. This membrane potential is progressively going to positive value e. Now we can say that membrane lost its negative polarity and depolarized.

After depolarization of the cell, depolarization sensitive channels. K starts rushes outside because intracellular K is normally more as compared to extracellular K. When cell starts losing cations Kvoltage comes toward electronegativity but as soon as it becomes zero, Ca-channels also open.

lecture notes on ecg

So for very short time, K keeps on moving out and Ca keeps on moving in, this loss and gain of the cations, no net change occurs in potential. As there is no voltage difference, we can say electrical potential is showing Plateau phase. After sometime, Ca channels close and K-channels become more and more active.Learn more about Scribd Membership Home.

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ECG: Mastering Chest Leads

Search inside document. It is a graphic recording of changes of total electromotive force of heart a sum vector during spreading excitation wave in the heart. Functions of myocardium that can be evaluated by the electrocardiography:.

But not myocardial contractility! It is ability of heart to initiate electric impulses in the absence of exogenous irritants.

Pacemaker of the first order — sinoatrial node electric impulses per minute. Pacemaker of the second order — atrioventricular joint march between AV node and initial part of His bundle electric impulses per minute. Pacemaker of the third order — finite part of His bundle, its branches and hemifascicles electric impulses per minute. In health only pacemaker is sinoatrial node which suppresses activity of the rest of ectopic pacemakers!

It is ability of specialized conducting tissue and ordinary muscles to conduct the activation. Ordinary muscles conduct impulses at a velocity much lower than intraventricular specialized conducting tissue the His-Purkinje systembut considerably faster than AV node. It is ability of specialized conducting tissue cells and ordinary muscle fibers to become excited under the influence exogenous electric impulses.

An extracellular cardiac electrical field is generated by ion fluxes across cell membranes and between adjacent cells. These ion currents are synchronized by cardiac activation and recovery sequences to generate a cardiac electrical field in and around the heart that varies with time during the cardiac cycle.As the science and practice of hematology continues to advance at a considerable rate, Lecture Notes Haematology remains a comprehensive guide to this diverse subject and provides support in understanding the pathogenesis and management of hematological disorders.

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Password recovery. Med Syndicate. Free Medical Books Internal Medicine. Share on Facebook. March 10, This web site is a gateway to better understanding the heart's electrical patterns. Hearts and ECGs are cool!

lecture notes on ecg

First, a note about the terminology: ECG and EKG are synonymous and used interchangably for recordings of the electrical activity of the heart.

ECG is based on the English version of the word, "electrocardiogram", and is the version used most commonly today. I will mostly use "ECG" from here on, with some "EKG" or both, as is commonly done by others and in the literature and you'll need to get used to it. The heart itself is a complex organ and the electrical patterns coming from it can seem very complex, confusing, and even overwhelming.

Most training and learning of ECGs and the associated terminology and jargon involves medically-related persons. However, most of the billions of hearts in the world keep ticking away day in and day out with their everyday normal patterns.

Many biologists, biology teachers and students, and other people find the normal heart and its outputs to be interesting! Our equipment over this period changed from old, bulky "physiographs" with liquid ink tracing pens to smaller computer-based machines and various software, from primitive to more advanced.

We recently switched to standard clinical type lead and Holter PC-based units for pre-professional students who will eventually encounter the standard ECG machines as well as other students who might either be just plain interested or else encounter problems with their own hearts and end up getting lead ECGs run on themselves in a clinical environment. Standard ECGs, however, have a fairly steep learning curve, with most of the training and educational material focused on the medical student.

It is possible, however, to introduce the subject to virtually anyone who is interested or needs to understand it to whatever degree. It is focused on the normal ECG.

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It is with all of the various and sundry abnormalities that the subject really gets out of hand! Disclaimer: the intent of this site is for educational purposes only, NOT diagnostic. ECGs are complex with many subtle variations and can be difficult or misleading to interpret. Full and proper analysis requires much specialized training and experience. Most non-medical instructors and even some who are medical instructors do not have the expertise for diagnostic interpretations of abnormal ECGs and might not even be able to detect some abnormal situations.

Our understanding of biological electricity began and gradually increased through the efforts of many persons during the 17thth centuries. The term "electrocardiogram" and our modern-day combination of leads started around with Einthoven and possibly his immediate predecessorsfirst with three main limb leads, the addition of the six chest leads during the 's, and finally the three augmented limb leads in to produce the total of 12 leads used up to the present.

Some of the earliest equipment and techniques were downright amazing for being able to detect and record the slight amounts of electricity in millivolts or mV coming from the heart and other muscles. However, over time and with improved computing algorithms, it became possible to measure ECGs during exercise and "stress" tests.

Portable or "Holter" units, named after Dr. Holter, a Montana physician who initially developed it inpermit recordings over long periods of time during routine daily life including various activities and exercise. The original Holter unit was a 75 pound backpack!In this article, we are sharing with our audience the genuine PDF download of Dr. To ensure user-safety and faster downloads, we have uploaded this.

lecture notes on ecg

At Medicos Republic, we believe in quality and speed which are a part of our core philosophy and promise to our readers. We hope that you people benefit from our blog! Now before that we share the free PDF download of Dr. Najeeb is a very popular figure among medical students and healthcare professionals. He has the most number of medical video lectures on the internet covering almost all subjects of med-school.

Here in this article, we will be sharing with you Dr. Below is the complete table of contents offered inside Dr. Alright, now in this part of the article, you will be able to access the free PDF download of Dr. We have uploaded a genuine PDF ebook copy of this book to our online file repository so that you can enjoy a blazing-fast and safe downloading experience.

Please use the direct link mentioned below to download Dr. Please bear in mind that we do not own copyrights to these books. We highly encourage our visitors to purchase original books from the respected publishers. If someone with copyrights wants us to remove this content, please contact us immediately. If you feel that we have violated your copyrights, then please contact us immediately click here.

You may send an email to madxperts [at] gmail. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Sunday, April 12, Medicos Republic. Free Medical Books Download. Please enter your comment! Please enter your name here. You have entered an incorrect email address!Some of the lecture notes are chapters derived from course notes written by Dr.

Bertrand Delgutte.

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Chapter 9 was also originally co-authored by Paul Albrecht. These chapters are presented courtesy of the authors and used with permission. Gari Clifford. Chapter 1: data acquisition PDF.

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Used with permission. Reisner, A. Clifford, and R. Edited by Clifford, G. Azuaje, and P. Norwood, MA: Artech House, ISBN: Chapter 5: sampling in time and frequency PDF.

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Chapter 6: Z-transforms PDF not covered in class, but distributed for completeness. Quatieri, T. Chapter 7: the short-time Fourier transform PDF. Chapter 8: linear prediction PDF. Slides for Lec 10 and decision systems PDF. Slides for Lec 18 and random signal processing PDF - 1. Chapter random signals — basic properties PDF. Chapter random signals and linear systems PDF. Lecture slides PDF - 1.

Chapter blind source separation PDF - 1. Don't show me this again. This is one of over 2, courses on OCW.In this article, we are sharing with our audience the genuine PDF download of Dr.

To ensure user-safety and faster downloads, we have uploaded this. At Medicos Republic, we believe in quality and speed which are a part of our core philosophy and promise to our readers. We hope that you people benefit from our blog!

Now before that we share the free PDF download of Dr. Najeeb is a very popular figure among medical students and healthcare professionals. He has the most number of medical video lectures on the internet covering almost all subjects of med-school. Here in this article, we will be sharing with you Dr.

Below is the complete table of contents offered inside Dr. Alright, now in this part of the article, you will be able to access the free PDF download of Dr.

We have uploaded a genuine PDF ebook copy of this book to our online file repository so that you can enjoy a blazing-fast and safe downloading experience. Please use the direct link mentioned below to download Dr.

Please bear in mind that we do not own copyrights to these books. We highly encourage our visitors to purchase original books from the respected publishers. If someone with copyrights wants us to remove this content, please contact us immediately. If you feel that we have violated your copyrights, then please contact us immediately click here.

You may send an email to madxperts [at] gmail. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Thursday, April 9, Medicos Republic.


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